For consolidating the existing framework of bankruptcy and insolvency in India, a single bankruptcy law was created, known as the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (“Code” or “IBC”). IBC was introduced in December 2015 and passed in May 2016 by Lok Sabha. Subsequently, it received the assent of the President of India and came into effect.
The Code provides 360 degree solution for settling insolvencies which is a lengthy and an economically exorbitant process these days. In India, robust insolvency structure where the time and cost dedicated is curtailed in achieving liquidation has been long overdue. The Code is empowered to protect the small investors and make business processes conducive.
Vision of current Code
IBC is applicable to companies as well as individuals and provides for a time-bound procedure for resolving insolvency issues. In case of default in repayment, creditors secure access and control over debtor’s property and are required to take actions for resolving insolvency within 180 days. To ensure steady resolution process, IBC shields debtors from resolution claims of creditors during this procedure. Also, the Code integrates provisions of contemporary legislative structure, thus establishing a common forum for creditors as well as debtors of all categories to resolve insolvency.
Facilitators of insolvency resolutions
Following are various institutions created by the Code that facilitate insolvency resolution:
- Professional agencies: Exams are conducted by these agencies to test and certify insolvency professionals. A code of conduct is also enforced by these agencies to administer the performance of the professionals. Insolvency professionals are required to be registered with such agencies.
- Professionals: The Code proposes creation of a specialized core of licensed professionals. Their role includes administration of resolution process, managing the property belonging to the debtors as well as providing information for creditors to abet them in decision making process.
- Adjudicating authorities: For companies, National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) will arbitrate the proceedings of resolution process whereas Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT) will adjudicate the proceedings for individuals. Approval for initiating the process of resolution, appointment of insolvency professionals and approval of final decision of the creditors are some of the duties performed by the above mentioned authorities.
- Information utilities: Creditors are mandatorily required to report and communicate financial information of the debt owed to them by the debtors. All the records pertaining to liabilities, defaults and debts shall form part of such information.
- Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board (“Board”): The Board is responsible for regulating insolvency professional agencies, professionals and information utilities established under the Code. Representatives of Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Ministries of finance, corporate affairs and law constitute the Board.
Any business requires institution of faith and fulfilment of obligations by the transacting parties for best business practices. Many a time’s circumstances hinder the proper discharge of duties undertaken by the parties due to uncertain changes in the environment. Insolvency or bankruptcy conditions obstruct the desired performance of the agreed promises between the parties. Also, the other party to the transaction is left helpless for the losses it may suffer. Since its inception many alterations have been suggested for fabricating the already existing Code, the same are in motion. Successful execution of insolvency and bankruptcy proceedings are a product of favorable steady amendments in the Code.
If you have any questions or would like to discuss more about any of the above provisions our team of experts can guide you.
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